Cars give people wonderful freedom and increase their opportunities. But they also destroy the environment, to an extent so drastic that they kill all social life.


Break the urban area down into local transport areas, each one between 1 and 2 miles across, surrounded by a ring road. Within the local transport area, build minor local roads and paths for internal movements on foot, by bike, on horseback, and in local vehicles; build major roads which make it easy for cars and trucks to get to and from the ring roads, but place them to make internal local trips slow and inconvenient.

… superimposed over the Mosaic of Subcultures (8), there is a need for a still larger cellular structure: the local transport areas. These areas, 1-2 mile across, not only help to form subcultures, by creating natural boundaries in the city, but they can also help to generate the individual city fingers in the City Country Fingers (3), an they can help to circumscribe each downtown area too, as a special self-contained area of local transportation — Magic of the City (10).

To keep main roads for long distance traffic, but not for internal local traffic, lay them out as they parallel one way roads, and keep these parallel roads away from the center of the area, so that they are very good for getting to the ring roads, but inconvenient for short local trips — Parallel Roads (23). Lay out abundant footpaths and bike paths and green streets at right angles to the main roads, and make these paths for local traffic go directly through the center — Green Streets (51), Network of Paths and Cars (52), Bike Paths and Racks (56); sink the ring roads around the outside of each area, or shield the noise they make some other way — Ring Roads (17); keep parking to a minimum within the area, and keep all major parking garages near the ring roads — Nine Per Cent Parking (22), Shielded Parking (97); and build a major interchange within the center of the area — Interchange (34)